what are the major types of soil found in India ? Explain each.​


what are the major types of soil found in India ? Explain each.​

in progress 0
Ella 11 months 2021-06-30T15:28:31+00:00 2 Answers 0 views 0

Answers ( )


    Major types of soil are:-

    1) Alluvial Soil

    The alluvial soil occurs mainly in the Satluj- Ganga- Brahmaputra Plains. They are also found in the valleys of the Narmada, Tapi, and the Eastern and Western coastal plains. These soils are mainly derived from the debris brown from the Himalayas. This soil is well-drained and poorly drained with an immature profile in undulating areas. This soil has a phosphorous deficiency. The color of soil varies from light grey to ash. This soil is suited for Rice, maize, wheat, sugarcane, oilseeds, etc.

    This soil is divided into

    (i)Khadar Soil (New): the khadar soils are enriched with fresh silts. They are low lying, frequently inundated by floods during the rainy season. It occupies the flood plains of rivers. The khaddar tracts called as kankar are rich in concentration.

    (ii)Bhangar Soil (Old): This soil lies above the flood level. It is well-drained but because of the calcium carbonate nodules, the texture of soil varies from the loamy soil to clayey soil.

    2)Red Soil

    This soil developed on Archean granite occupies the second largest area of the country. They are mainly found in the Peninsula from Tamil Nadu in the south to Bundelkhand in the north and Raj Mahal in the east to Kathiawad in the west. This soil is also known as the omnibus group. The presence of ferric oxides makes the colour of soil red. The top layer of the soil is red and the horizon below is yellowish. Generally, these soils are deficient in phosphate, lime, magnesia, humus and nitrogen. This soil is good for the cultivation of wheat, cotton, pulses, tobacco, millets, orchards, potato and oilseeds.

    3) Black or Regur Soil

    Black soil is also known cotton soil and internationally it is known as ‘Tropical Chernozems’. This is the third largest group in India. This soil is formed from rocks of cretaceous lava. This stretch over the parts of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Western parts of Madhya Pradesh, North- Western Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand up to Raj Mahal hills. The soil is rich in iron, lime, calcium, potash, magnesium, and aluminium. It has high water retaining capacity and good for cotton cultivation, Tobacco, citrus fruits, castor, and linseed.

    4)Desert Soil

    This soil is deposited by wind action and mainly found in the arid and semi-arid areas like Rajasthan, West of the Aravallis, Northern Gujarat, Saurashtra, Kachchh, Western parts of Haryana and southern part of Punjab. They are sandy with low organic matter. It has low soluble salts and moisture with very low retaining capacity. If irrigated these soil give a high agricultural return. These are suitable for less water-intensive crops like Bajra, pulses, fodder, and guar.

    5)Laterite Soil

    These soft, when they are wet and ‘hard and cloddy’ on drying. These are found mainly in the hills of the Western Ghats, Raj Mahal hills, Eastern Ghats, Satpura, Vindhya, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, North Cachar Hills and the Garo hills. These are poor in organic matter, nitrogen, potassium, lime and potash. These iron and aluminium rich soils are suitable for the cultivation of rice, ragi, sugarcane, and cashew nuts.



     In India, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has classified soils into 8 categories. Alluvial Soil, Black Cotton Soil, Red Soil, Laterite Soil, Mountainous or Forest Soils, Arid or Desert Soil, Saline and Alkaline Soil, Peaty, and Marshy Soil are the categories of Indian Soil.


Leave an answer


9:3-3+1x3-4:2 = ? ( )