How many types of antibodies and write their functions


How many types of antibodies and write their functions

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Genesis 2 months 2021-07-27T04:15:24+00:00 2 Answers 0 views 0

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    IgG is the most abundant antibody isotype in the blood (plasma), accounting for 70-75% of human immunoglobulins (antibodies). IgG detoxifies harmful substances and is important in the recognition of antigen-antibody complexes by leukocytes and macrophages. IgG is transferred to the fetus through the placenta and protects the infant until its own immune system is functional.


    IgM usually circulates in the blood, accounting for about 10% of human immunoglobulins. IgM has a pentameric structure in which five basic Y-shaped molecules are linked together. B cells produce IgM first in response to microbial infection/antigen invasion.

    Although IgM has a lower affinity for antigens than IgG, it has higher avidity for antigens because of its pentameric/hexameric structure. IgM, by binding to the cell surface receptor, also activates cell signaling pathways.


    IgA is abundant in serum, nasal mucus, saliva, breast milk, and intestinal fluid, accounting for 10-15% of human immunoglobulins. IgA forms dimers (i.e., two IgA monomers joined together). IgA in breast milk protects the gastrointestinal tract of neonates from pathogens.


    IgE is present in minute amounts, accounting for no more than 0.001% of human immunoglobulins. Its original role is to protect against parasites. In regions where parasitic infection is rare, IgE is primarily involved in allergy.


    IgD accounts for less than 1% of human immunoglobulins. IgD may be involved in the induction of antibody production in B cells, but its exact function remains unknown.



    IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE –

    Opsonization. They bind to the surface of immunogens and the Fc region interacts with the phagocytes (“calls” them to the site of infection)

    Neutralization. They stick to antigens and block their attachment sites.


    Antibody mediated cytotoxicity.

    Complement activation.

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