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e Carnatic Wars
land and France’s rivalry which dom
European political scene, spilled in
nial possessions. Three Carnatic
2-French Wars were fought betwe
ia. These are referred to as
1746-1763) because most of t​

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Clara 3 months 2021-07-25T20:14:06+00:00 1 Answers 0 views 0

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    Tags: GS Paper – 1Modern Indian HistoryImportant Personalities

    Though the British and the French came to India for trading proposes, they were ultimately drawn into the politics of India.

    Both had visions for establishing political power over the region.

    The Anglo-French rivalry in India reflected the traditional rivalry of England and France throughout their histories.

    Specifically, in India, the rivalry, in the form of three Carnatic wars decided once for all the English and not French were the more suitable ones to establish their rule all over India.

    First Carnatic War (1740-48)


    Carnatic was the name given by the Europeans to the Coromandel coast and its hinterland.

    The First Carnatic War was an extension of the Anglo-French War in Europe which was caused by the Austrian War of Succession.

    The First Carnatic War is remembered for the Battle of St. Thome (in Madras) fought between the French forces and the forces of Anwar-ud-din, the Nawab of Carnatic, to whom the English appealed for help.

    The War of Austrian Succession

    Between 1740 and 1748, most of Europe’s great powers were involved in a conflict caused by the question of Maria Theresa’s succession to the Austrian Habsburg crown.

    The war involved all of Europe, with France, Prussia, Spain, Bavaria and Saxony arrayed against Austria and Britain.

    The first two series of wars, the First Silesian War (1740–42) and the Second Silesian War (1744–45) were centered around Austria and Prussia.

    The third war was centred on the continued conflict between France and Britain over colonial possessions in India and North America.

    During the war, British troops proved their worth as soldiers.

    The war was concluded with the Peace treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, signed in October 1748.

    Under this treaty, France agreed to leave the Austrian Netherlands and give back Madras to Britain in return for Louisbourg.

    Maria Theresa was also confirmed as Austrian ruler.

    The Cause of the War:

    Although France, conscious of its relatively weaker position in India, did not favour an extension of hostilities to India, the English navy under Commodore Curtis Bennett seized some French ships to provoke France.

    The French Governor General, the Marquis Joseph-François Dupleix, appealed for protection from Anwar-ud-Din, the Nawab of Carnatic and he in turn warned the British that his province was neutral territory and that no attack on French possessions would be tolerated.

    France retaliated by seizing Madras in 1746 with the help of the fleet from Mauritius, the Isle of France, under Admiral La Bourdonnais, the French governor of Mauritius.

    The capture of Madras triggered a bitter argument between Dupleix and La Bourdonnais.

    Dupleix wanted to hand the town over to the Nawab, as compensation for breaking the Nawab’s decree of neutrality, while La Bourdonnais wanted to ransom the town back to the British.

    This dispute dragged on into October, and eventually Anwar-ud-Din decided to intervene. He sent an army of 10,000 men under the command of his son Mahfuzz Khan to besiege the French in Madras.


    A small French army under Captain Paradise defeated the strong Indian army under Mahfuz Khan at St.Thome on the banks of the River Adyar.

    The First Carnatic War ended in 1748 when the Treaty of Aix-La Chapelle was signed bringing the Austrian War of Succession to a conclusion.

    Under the terms of this treaty, Madras was handed back to the English, and the French, in turn, got their territories in North America.


    War was an eye-opener for the Europeans in India: it revealed that even a small disciplined army could easily defeat a much larger Indian army.

    Further, this war adequately brought out the importance of naval force in the Anglo-French conflict in the Deccan.

    Second Carnatic War (1749-54)


    The background for the Second Carnatic War was provided by the Anglo-French rivalry in India.

    Even after the end of the First Carnatic War, the peace in India was short lived.

    In 1748 Nizam-ul-Mulk, the Mughal governor of the Deccan and semi-independent Nawab of Hyderabad died.

    The succession to his position was contested, and the British and French were soon dragged into the fighting between the candidates.

    Dupleix, the French governor who had successfully led the French forces in the First Carnatic War, sought to increase his power and French political influence in southern India by interfering in local dynastic disputes to defeat the English.

    The resulting Second Carnatic War lasted from 1749 until 1754, and saw the British strengthen their position in southern India.

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